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|12-02-2011, 01:55||#1 (permalink)|
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Short Summary of Robinson Crusoe - Robinson Crusoe İngilizce Kitap Özeti
Robinson Crusoe is a youth of about eighteen years old who resides in Hull England. Although his father wishes him to become a lawyer Crusoe dreams of going on sea voyages. He disregards the fact that his two older brothers are gone because of their need for adventure. His father cautions that a middle-class existence is the most stable. Robinson ignores him. When his parents refuse to let him take at least one journey he runs away with a friend and secures free passage to London. Misfortune begins immediately in the form of rough weather. The ship is forced to land at Yarmouth. When Crusoe's friend learns the circumstances under which he left his family he becomes angry and tells him that he should have never come to the sea. They part and Crusoe makes his way to London via land. He thinks briefly about going home but cannot stand to be humiliated. He manages to find another voyage headed to Guiana. Once there he wants to become a trader. On the way the ship is attacked by Turkish pirates who bring the crew and passengers into the Moorish port of Sallee. Robinson is made a slave. For two years he plans an escape. An opportunity is presented when he is sent out with two Moorish youths to go fishing. Crusoe throws one overboard and tells the other one called Xury that he may stay if he is faithful. They anchor on what appears to be uninhabited land. Soon they see that black people live there. These natives are very friendly to Crusoe and Xury. At one point the two see a Portuguese ship in the distance. They manage to paddle after it and get the attention of those on board. The captain is kind and says he will take them aboard for free and bring them to Brazil.
Robinson goes to Brazil and leaves Xury with the captain. The captain and a widow in England are Crusoe's financial guardians. In the new country Robinson observes that much wealth comes from plantations. He resolves to buy one for himself. After a few years he has some partners and they are all doing very well financially. Crusoe is presented with a new proposition: to begin a trading business. These men want to trade slaves and they want Robinson to be the master of the tradepost. Although he knows he has enough money Crusoe decides to make the voyage. A terrible shipwreck occurs and Robinson is the only survivor. He manages to make it to the shore of an island.
Robinson remains on the island for twenty-seven years. He is able to take many provisions from the ship. In that time he recreates his English life building homes necessities learning how to cook raise goats and crops. He is at first very miserable but embraces religion as a balm for his unhappiness. He is able to convince himself that he lives a much better life here than he did in Europe--much more simple much less wicked. He comes to appreciate his sovereignty over the entire island. One time he tries to use a boat to explore the rest of the island but he is almost swept away and does not make the attempt again. He has pets whom he treats as subjects. There is no appearance of man until about 15 years into his stay. He sees a footprint and later observes cannibalistic savages eating prisoners. They don't live on the island; they come in canoes from a mainland not too far away. Robinson is filled with outrage and resolves to save the prisoners the next time these savages appear. Some years later they return. Using his guns Crusoe scares them away and saves a young savage whom he names Friday.
Friday is extremely grateful and becomes Robinson's devoted servant. He learns some English and takes on the Christian religion. For some years the two live happily. Then another ship of savages arrives with three prisoners. Together Crusoe and Friday are able to save two of them. One is a Spaniard; the other is Friday's father. Their reunion is very joyous. Both have come from the mainland close by. After a few months they leave to bring back the rest of the Spaniard's men. Crusoe is happy that his island is being peopled. Before the Spaniard and Friday's father can return a boat of European men comes ashore. There are three prisoners. While most of the men are exploring the island Crusoe learns from one that he is the captain of a ship whose crew mutinied. Robinson says he will help them as long as they leave the authority of the island in his hands and as long as they promise to take Friday and himself to England for free. The agreement is made. Together this little army manages to capture the rest of the crew and retake the captain's ship. Friday and Robinson are taken to England. Even though Crusoe has been gone thirty-five years he finds that his plantations have done well and he is very wealthy. He gives money to the Portuguese captain and the widow who were so kind to him. He returns to the English countryside and settles there marrying and having three children. When his wife dies he once more goes to the sea.
|12-02-2011, 01:56||#2 (permalink)|
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Robinson Crusoe İngilizce Karakter Tanıtımları
Robinson Crusoe: the main character of the story he is a rebellious youth with an inexplicable need to travel. Because of this need he brings misfortune on himself and is left to fend for himself in a primitive land. The novel essentially chronicles his mental and spiritual development as a result of his isolation. He is a contradictory character; at the same time he is practical ingenuity and immature decisiveness.
Xury: a friend/servant of Crusoe's he also escapes from the Moors. A simple youth who is dedicated to Crusoe he is admirable for his willingness to stand by the narrator. However he does not think for himself.
Friday: another friend/servant of Crusoe's he spends a number of years on the island with the main character who saves him from cannibalistic death. Friday is basically Crusoe's protege a living example of religious justification of the slavery relationship between the two men. His eagerness to be redone in the European image is supposed to convey that this image is indeed the right one.
Crusoe's father: although he appears only briefly in the beginning he embodies the theme of the merits of Protestant middle-class living. It is his teachings from which Crusoe is running with poor success.
Crusoe's mother: one of the few female figures she fully supports her husband and will not let Crusoe go on a voyage.
Moorish patron: Crusoe's slave master he allows for a role reversal of white men as slaves. He apparently is not too swift however in that he basically hands Crusoe an escape opportunity.
Portuguese sea captain: one of the kindest figures in the book he is an honest man who embodies all the Christian ideals. Everyone is supposed to admire him for his extreme generosity to the narrator. He almost takes the place of Crusoe's father.
Spaniard: one of the prisoners saved by Crusoe it is interesting to note that he is treated with much more respect in Crusoe's mind than any of the colored peoples with whom Crusoe is in contact.
Captured sea captain: he is an ideal soldier the intersection between civilized European and savage white man. Crusoe's support of his fight reveals that the narrator no longer has purely religious motivations.
Widow: she is goodness personified and keeps Crusoe's money safe for him. She is in some way a foil to his mother who does not support him at all.
Savages: the cannibals from across the way they represent the threat to Crusoe's religious and moral convictions as well as his safety. He must conquer them before returning to his own world.
Negroes: they help Xury and Crusoe when they land on their island and exist in stark contrast to the savages.
Traitorous crew members: they are an example of white men who do not heed God; they are white savages.
|12-02-2011, 01:58||#3 (permalink)|
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Robinson Crusoe Özet 2
The sea captain is extremely kind to Crusoe. He buys Robinson's boat all of his worldly goods and Xury. At first the narrator is reluctant to part with his servant but the captain promises to free him in ten years if he has turned Christian. As Xury finds this agreeable Robinson allows the exchange. The voyage to Brazil goes well. The narrator is recommended by the captain to the house of an "honest man." This man lives on a plantation and Robinson lives with him for a while. Seeing how rich the plantation owners are he resolves to become a planter and begins purchasing much land. Once Robinson is planting he becomes friendly with Wells his Portuguese neighbor. They slowly increase the diversity of their stock. At this juncture Robinson regrets having sold Xury. He is in a trade that he knows nothing about and he has no one to talk to but the neighbor. If he had listened to his father he would have been comfortable at home. Still he is sustained by his augmenting wealth.
The captain returns and tells Robinson to give him a letter of procuration so that he can bring the narrator half of the fortune he has left with the English captain's widow. He returns not only with money but with a servant. Robinson is now infinitely richer than his neighbor and purchases a "Negro slave" and a "European servant." Each year he grows more tobacco and thrives. But he is not completely happy with this life: "Nature" and "Providence" stir him so that he is not content and winds up throwing himself into the pit of human misery once more. Having made friends during his four year residence in Brazil he has spoken much of voyages to Guinea where one can buy desirable items but especially Negro servants for plantation work. It is a highly restricted trade though. Three merchants come to him and say they want to buy the Negroes privately for their own plantations. They ask if he will join and manage the trading on Guinea. Ignoring the inner voice of his father Robinson wholeheartedly agrees to go. He makes the investing merchants promise they will look after his plantation if he "miscarries." He boards the ship on the first of September eight years after he ran away from home.
Good weather lasts for a while but then it turns stormy. One man dies of sickness; a little boy is washed overboard. After 12 days it is clear that the ship will not make it due to leakiness. They decide to try and make it to Africa where they can get assistance. For 15 days they sail and another storm hits. There is land in the distance but they are afraid it might be inhabited by savages who will eat them. The ship crashes into sand and the sea powerfully washes over it. They use their oars to edge closer to shore but their hearts are heavy because they know as soon as they get there the ship will be dashed to pieces and they will be overtaken by the undercurrent and drowned. They have to at least try and swim. Once they jump into the sea Robinson has some good luck and is helped to shore by a wave. He runs as the sea continues to chase him. The water fights him but he manages to land safely on shore. Robinson thanks God for his deliverance. He looks around sees nothing to help him and runs about like a madman until he falls asleep in a tree. The next day is calm and sunny. The narrator now sees that if they had stayed on board the ship would have made it to land without being dashed. But the rest of the company is dead and Robinson grieves. He swims out to the ship and takes a few pieces to build a raft. On this he loads the provisions everything from food to weaponry. Robinson looks about the island for a good place to live and store his supplies. There are no people only beasts. A tent serves as his lodging. He makes a number of voyages to the ship in the next few weeks and brings back everything salvageable. In order to guard against possible savages the narrator moves his tent near a cave with steep sides. He sets up a home with cables and rigging. A hammock is his bed. He makes a cave behind the tent to serve as a cellar. Discovering goats on the island Robinson goes out daily to kill his food. This leads to his making a cooking area. When desolation threatens to overwhelm him he forces himself to remember the dead company and how much better off he is. At the very least he has housing and guns to kill food.
|12-02-2011, 01:58||#4 (permalink)|
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Generally we see that there is a major sense of class superiority. Robinson has a "European servant" and a "Negro slave" on his plantation. We are supposed to assume that one is better than the other. The basis of such distinctions is rooted in religion. Defoe introduces what is perhaps the most important background component to the story--the role of Christianity particularly as it connects to relationships with other people. What appears to be a friendship between Robinson and Xury is turned into a common master-slave relationship when Crusoe decides to part with him so that Xury will be Christian in ten years' time. The fact that he is willing to forsake his companion in this manner indicates how strongly the Christian faith is entrenched within him. Essentially it is the driving force behind this decision. The business-like friendship is further emphasized when the narrator procures a plantation in Brazil. Astounded by the hard work he wishes dearly for "his boy Xury." The diction of this line demonstrates a possessiveness toward Robinson's companion. Ironically he only longs for his company when there is back-breaking labor to be done. It appears that Xury's un-Christian status degrades him in the eyes of the narrator and the author. Lack of Christian doctrine and teachings becomes a symbol of ignorance and inferiority. When the captain offers to purchase Xury he is truly playing the part of a savior at least in Defoe's mind. Modern day readers cannot help but see this as slightly sarcastic: slavery is not often a device of deliverance. However the author probably did not intend this reading. Xury is happy even grateful to forsake his freedom; we must believe for the purposes of this novel that Christianity is the proper walk of life.
"Deliverance" is a word that appears throughout the book. It is introduced to us in this part as the action of Providence. The author seems to define Providence as an ephemeral being a personification of Christianity's ideals that has the power to decide the fate of its followers. Crusoe uses this concept to justify the course of events that befall him. It is responsible for the kind sea captain who takes Robinson abroad and delivers him to South America for Robinson's extremely good fortune in purchasing a plantation and amassing wealth. In many respects he is still a child depending on the kindness of strangers. Providence together with Nature is the temptation that leads him out of his safe rich haven and onto another sea voyage. Once again the sea becomes a symbol of trouble and turmoil. Each time Robinson ventures into the ocean he is punished; first slavery now a shipwreck. This sentiment is heightened by the fact that the rest of the crew perishes when they might have survived. It is as if the narrator is singled out to suffer. Once more he laments that he did not heed his father's advice. Yet he is not yet willing to take entire responsibility for his decisions. The will of Providence becomes a convenient escape from the simple fact that Crusoe chooses to be on this island through his own mistaken reasoning and greediness. Plantation money was not enough for him; he needed to try and engage in the risky enterprise of slave-trading. It is ironic that the Christian religion condones such human oppression. The book winds up commenting on religion without intending to do so. Again this is the interpretation of a modern reading. Still the narrator's decisive actions in the face of hardship are admirable and surprising. We wait to see whether he will prove to be dexterous enough to manage his fate.
Short Summary of Robinson Crusoe - Robinson Crusoe İngilizce Kitap Özeti konusu, Yabancı Diller / İngilizce forumunda tartışılıyor.
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