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|05-03-2012, 09:18||#1 (permalink)|
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Karıncanın ingilizce tanıtımı
Karıncanın ingilizce tanıtımı
Ants are social insects of the family and along with the related wasps and bees belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12500 out of an estimated total of 22000 species have been classified. They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist.
Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies which may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals. These larger colonies consist mostly of sterile wingless females forming castes of "workers" "soldiers" or other specialised groups. Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called "drones" and one or more fertile females called "queens". The colonies are sometimes described as superorganisms because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity collectively working together to support the colony.
Ants have colonised almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antarctica and a few remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems and may form 1525% of the terrestrial animal biomass. Their success in so many environments has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats tap resources and defend themselves. Their long co-evolution with other species has led to mimetic commensal parasitic and mutualistic relationships.
Ant societies have division of labour communication between individuals and an ability to solve complex problems. These parallels with human societies have long been an inspiration and subject of study.
Many human cultures make use of ants in cuisine medication and rituals. Some species are valued in their role as biological pest control agents. However their ability to exploit resources brings ants into conflict with humans as they can damage crops and invade buildings. Some species such as the red imported fire ant are regarded as invasive species establishing themselves in areas where they are accidentally introduced.
|05-03-2012, 09:33||#2 (permalink)|
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There are thousands of species of ants found all over the world and in just about every type of land environment. Many species are found in rain forests. The science of studying ants is called myrmecology.
These common social insects live in colonies (groups of related ants). Each colony consists of:
* Queen – The queen begins her life with wings which she uses while mating. After mating with a male ant (or many males) she flies to her nesting area. She then loses her wings and spends her life laying eggs.
* Workers – Workers are the many sterile (non-reproducing) wingless female worker ants who are the daughters of the queen. These workers collect food and feed members of the colony defend the colony and enlarge the nest. Most of the ants in a colony are workers.
* Soldiers – Soldiers are large workers (sterile females) who defend the colony and often raid other colonies capturing slaves. .
* Males – Males are small ants that have wings. They fly from the colony to mate with a queen. They die soon afterwards.
Ants exhibit complex behavior; some ants build intricate nests some are fierce warriors some collect and store seeds (harvester ants) some capture slaves and some farm fungi (leaf-cutter ants).
Anatomy: Ants like all insects have jointed legs three body parts (the head thorax and abdomen) a pair of antennae and a hard exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is made up of a material that is very similar to our fingernails. Ants range in color from yellow to brown to red to black.
Some ants have a stinger and some can even inject poisonous acid from the stinger (the stinger is at the tip of the abdomen the rear body segment). Ants can also bite using their jaws (mandibles). Ants range in size from about 0.08 inch (2 mm) to up to about 1 inch (25 mm) long.
Life Cycle: The life cycle of the ant consists of four stages: egg larva pupa and adult. Fertilized eggs produce female ants (queens workers or soldiers); unfertilized eggs produce male ants.
* Egg: Ant eggs are oval shaped and tiny (they are on the order of 1 mm long but the queen’s egg is many times larger).
* Larva: The worm-like larvae have no eyes and no legs; they eat food regurgitated by adult ants. The larvae molt (shed their skin) many times as they increase in size.
* Pupa: After reaching a certain size the larva spins a silk-like cocoon around itself (against a solid object like the wall of the chamber) and pupates. During this time the body metamorphoses (changes) into its adult form.
* Adult: The pupa emerges as an adult. The entire life cycle usually lasts from 6 to 10 weeks. Some queens can live over 15 years and some workers can live for up to 7 years.
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